ABSOLUTE EOSINOPHIL COUNT (AEC):
An absolute eosinophil count is a blood test that measures the number of white blood cells called eosinophils. Eosinophils become active when you have certain allergic diseases, infections, and other medical conditions. This test may help to diagnose acute hyper eosinophilic syndrome (a rare, but sometimes fatal leukemia-like condition),An allergic reaction (can also reveal how severe the reaction is),Early stages of Cushing’s disease, infection by a parasite.
ACTIVATED PARTIAL THROMBOPLASTIN TIME
The Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) or activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT or APTT) is done to detect abnormalities in blood clotting, intrinsic pathway including congenital deficiency of factor VIII, IX, XI and XII. It is used to measure anticoagulant therapy.
Partial Thromboplastin time is also used to monitor the treatment effects with heparin, a widely prescribed drug that reduces blood’s tendency to clot.
ADEMINASE DEAMINASE (ADA)
Adenosine deaminase (also known as adenosine amino hydrolase or ADA) is an enzymeinvolved in purine metabolism. It is needed for the breakdown of adenosine from food and for the turnover of nucleic acids in tissues.
ADA is considered one of the key enzymes of purine metabolism.
Primarily, ADA in humans is involved in the development and maintenance of the immune system.ADA is present in human blood plasma and is increased in many diseases, particularly those associated with the immune system: for example rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, tuberculosis and sarcoidosis.
ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE (ACTH):
The ACTH test measures the level of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the blood. ACTH is a hormone released from the pituitary gland in the brain.
The main function of ACTH is to regulate the steroid hormone Cortisol. Cortisol is released by the adrenal gland. It regulates blood pressure and blood sugar.
A high level of ACTH may indicate Addison disease, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, multiple endocrine neoplasias Type-I, Cushing disease
A low level of ACTH may indicate hypopituitarism, tumor of the adrenal gland.
ACID FAST BACILLI (AFB):
AFB testing is used to detect several different types of acid-fast bacilli, but it is most commonly used to identify an active tuberculosis (TB) infection caused by the most medically important AFB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Mycobacteria are called acid-fast bacilli because they are rod-shaped bacteria (bacilli) that can be seen under the microscope following a staining procedure in which the bacteria retain the color of the stain after an acid wash (acid-fast).
This test is done if you have symptoms, such as chronic cough, weight loss, low grade fever, chills.
Albumin is a protein made by the liver that keeps fluid from leaking out of blood vessels, nourishes tissues, and transports hormones, vitamins, drugs, and substances like calcium throughout the body.
Albumin is the most abundant protein in human plasma.
Hyperalbuminemia is of little diagnostic significance except in dehydration.
Hypoalbuminemia is found as a result of several factors: reduced synthesis caused by liver diseases, reduced absorption of amino acids, malnutrition.
ALFHA FETO PROTEIN (AFP):
AFP is a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal development. It is thought to be the fetal form of serum albumin.
Plasma levels decrease rapidly after birth.
AFP is measured in pregnant women through the analysis of maternal blood or amniotic fluid, as a screening test for a subset of developmental abnormalities.
AFP is a marker hepatocellular and germ cell (nonseminomal) carcinoma.
ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (ALP)
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme in the cells lining the biliary ducts of the liver. ALP is also present in bone and placental tissue.
ALP levels in plasma rise with large bile duct obstruction, intrahepatic cholestasis, or infiltrative diseases of the liver, bone disease associated with increased osteoblastic activity (Pager’s disease, primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone tumors, rickets, osteomalacia, bone fractures) and also in patient with hepatobiliary disease (obstructive jaundice, hepatitis)
Alanine Transaminase (ALT) is a Transaminase enzyme (EC184.108.40.206). It is also called AlanineAminotransferase (ALAT)
ALT is normally present in various tissues but its higher concentrations are found in liver and kidney.The serum concentration of ALT is elevated in hepatitis and other forms of hepatic disease associated with necrosis: infectious mononucleosis, cholestasis, cirrhosis, metastatic carcinoma of the liver, delirium tremens, and after administration of various drugs, such as opiates, salicylates or ampicillin.
Serum ALT concentration can also be elevated in skeletal or cardiac muscle disease.
The detection of Amphetamines in human urine has been widely used to assess the abuse of Amphetamines. Amphetamines are central nervous system stimulating drugs. They may induce alertness, wakefulness, increased energy, reduced hunger and overall feeling of well-being. Overdose and extended usage of Amphetamines may lead to substance abuse, which may cause severe and/or permanent damage to the human nerve system.
The blood amylase test is used to help diagnose and monitor acute pancreatitis and other pancreatic disorder like chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinoma and acute alcoholism and due to drugs (medicinal opiates, heroin addiction).
ANTI-NEUTROPHIL CYTOPLASMIC ANTIBODIES (ANCA):
Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCAs) are a group of auto-antibodies, mainly of the IgG type, against antigens in the cytoplasm of Neutrophil granulocytes (the most common type of white blood cell) and monocytes. They are detected as a blood test in a number of autoimmune disorders like small vessel vasculitides including granulomatosis with polyangiitis (previously known as Wegener’s granulomatosis), microscopic polyangiitis, primary pauci-immune necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis .The presence or absence of ANCA cannot indicate presence or absence of disease and results are correlated with clinical features.
ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME (ACE)
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme or ACE is a central component of the
Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), which controls blood pressure by regulating the volume of fluids in the body. It converts the hormone angiotensin I to the active vasoconstrictor angiotensin.
ACE is present in many different cell types such as neuronal cells and renal proximal tubular cells, but is mostly found in endothelial cells.
High levels of ACE are found in high blood pressure, heart failure and diabetic nephropathy.
ANTI HBc IgM:
Detection of IgM for hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) in serum is required to make the diagnosis of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) may be present in acute infection or in patients who are chronic carriers. Its presence in patients with symptoms of acute hepatitis strongly suggests acute HBV infection but does not rule out chronic HBV with acute superinfection by another hepatitis virus. The presence of HBsAg in the serum for 6 months or longer indicates chronic infection.
ANTI HBc TOTAL:
Anti-HBc total antibodies (all classes of antibodies) is the best marker for documenting prior exposure to HBV. Anti-HBc total antibodies become detectable before anti-HBs and remain positive indefinitely after IgM class anti-HBc disappears. In the absence of information about any other HBV markers, it must be considered that an individual with detectable levels of anti-HBc may be actively infected with HBV or that the infection may have resolved, leaving the person immune. Anti-HBc may be the only serological marker of HBV infection and potentially infectious blood. The presence of anti-HBc does not differentiate between acute or chronic hepatitis B infection. Anti-HBc should not be present in vaccinated individuals, unless they were infected with HBV prior to vaccination.
ANTI MULLERIAN HORMONE (AMH)
It is a hormone that inhibits the development of the Mullerian ducts (paramesonephric ducts) in the male embryo.
In women, to evaluate ovarian function and fertility, evaluation of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) or to evaluate the effectiveness of ovarian cancer treatment.
In an infant, to evaluate the presence of external sex organs that is not clearly male or female (ambiguous genitalia) and/or function of the testicles in an infant boy.
ANTI STREPTOLYSIN O TITRE (ASLO / ASO)
ASO antibodies are found in sera of patients in response to infection with hemolytic streptococci.
An abnormal or positive test result means you recently had a streptococcal infection.
ANTIBODY TO HEPATITIS A VIRUS (ANTI HAV IgM)
This test is used to help diagnose a liver infection due to the hepatitis A virus (HAV).
Test for Hepatitis A is ordered when someone has acute symptoms such as Fever, Nausea, vomiting, Dark urine and/or pale colored stool , Jaundice
ANTIBODY TO HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN (ANTI HBS)
Presence of this antibody is considered evidence of immunity to hepatitis B.
ANTIBODY TO HEPATITIS C VIRUS (ANTI HCV)
Hepatitis C tests are used to screen for and diagnose a hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, to guide therapy and/or to monitor the treatment of an HCV infection.
This is the principal screening test for hepatitis C exposure.
ANTI-CYCLIC CITRULLINATED PEPTIDE (ACCP)
Anti-cyclic Citrullinated peptide (ACCP) appears early in the rheumatic disease process and remains throughout the course of the disease. Early detection of Rheumatoid Arthritis is important as it causes irreversible damage to bone and cartilage.
ANTI-NUCLEAR ANTIBODY (ANA)
The antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is used as a primary test to help evaluate a person for autoimmune disorders. The ANA are antibodies the body produces against its own DNA and nuclear material that cause tissue damage and characterize autoimmune diseases like systemic Lupus Erythematous, Sjogren’s syndrome, Scleroderma, CREST syndrome and mixed connective tissue disorders.
Serum levels are decreased in renal disease, obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypothyroidism.
Anti-thyroid antibodies are auto-antibodies targeted against one or more components on the thyroid. The most clinically relevant anti-thyroid auto-antibodies are anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO antibodies), thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbss) and thyroglobulin antibodies.
Anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies are specific for the auto-antigen TPO.
Anti-TPO antibodies are most commonly associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and activating TRAbs are most commonly associated with Graves’ disease.
Apolipoproteins are proteins that bind lipids (oil-soluble substances such as fat and cholesterol) to form lipoproteins. They transport the lipids through the lymphatic and circulatory systems.
There are two major types of apolipoproteins. Apolipoproteins B form low-density lipoprotein (“bad cholesterol”) particles. These proteins have mostly beta-sheet structure and associate with lipid droplets irreversibly. Most of the other apolipoproteins form high-density lipoprotein (“good cholesterol”) particles. These proteins consist of alpha-helices and associate with lipid droplets reversibly. During binding to the lipid particles these proteins change their three-dimensional structure. There are also intermediate-density lipoproteins formed by Apolipoprotein E.
ASCITIC FLUID ANALYSIS:
Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity.
Ascites is a consequence or complication of a number of diseases, including
hepatic, cardiac, and renal diseases, infection, and malignancy.
Ascites is one of the most frequent complications of cirrhosis and portal hypertension.
AST, also called serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase or Aspartate Aminotransferase, enzyme associated with liver parenchymal cells.
AST is an enzyme found in high levels in the liver, heart, and muscles. It is also found in lesser amounts in other tissues.
An increased AST level is usually a sign of liver disease like hepatitis, cirrhosis and neoplastic disease.
Barbiturates are central nervous system depressants and used as hypnotic sedatives. Overdose and extended usage of barbiturates may lead to severe and/or permanent damage to the human nervous system.
Barbiturate derivatives are excreted in the urine.
Benzodiazepines are sedative, hypnotic and anti-anxiety drugs commonly used as tranquilizers. Most benzodiazepines excreted in the urine as metabolites. The benzodiazepines have a low potential for physical physiological dependence. Chronic abuse of benzodiazepines may result in intoxication, similar to drunken behavior. Overdose and extended usage of benzodiazepines may lead to coma.
This test is used for early detection of pregnancy. Serial elevations of Beta HCG are used for monitoring of pregnancy.
It is also used for detection and monitoring of HCG producing tumor cells of ovarian, placental or testicular origin. Depressed levels indicate missed abortion, ectopic pregnancy or IUD.
Bicarbonate is alkaline, and a vital component of the pHbuffering system of the human body (maintaining acid-base homeostasis).
This is especially important for protecting tissues of the central nervous system, where pH changes too far outside of the normal range in either direction could prove disastrous
Electrolyte panels or basic metabolic panels are commonly used to monitor treatment of certain problems (acidosis, alkalosis) including high blood pressure (hypertension), heart failure, and liver and kidney disease
BILIRUBIN (Total, Direct & Indirect)
Bilirubin is an orange-yellow pigment, a waste product primarily produced by the normal breakdown of heme.
A bilirubin test is used to detect an increased level in the blood. It may be used to help determine the cause of jaundice and/or help diagnose conditions such as liver disease, hemolytic anemia, and blockage of the bile ducts.
Increased total bilirubin that is mainly unconjugated (indirect) bilirubin may be a result of Hemolytic or pernicious anemia, Transfusion reaction, Cirrhosis
Conjugated (direct) bilirubin is elevated when there is blockage of the bile ducts. This may occur, for example, with Gallstones present in the bile ducts, Tumors & Scarring of the bile ducts
Bleeding time is a medical test done on someone to assess their platelets function. It involves making a patient bleed then timing how long it takes for them to stop bleeding.
A Blood culture is a test to find an infection in blood. The blood does not normally have any bacteria or fungi in it. A blood culture can show what bacteria or fungi are in the blood and which antibiotics will be able to kill the bacteria.
BLOOD GROUP WITH RH FACTOR
Blood grouping is done to identify the ABO antigen presence on red cells.
Rh classifies blood according to presence or absence of Rh (D) antigen.
Blood group and Rh factor testing is done to classify individuals into different blood groups like A,B,O,AB positive or negative prior to receiving or donating blood during surgery or otherwise.
(BLOOD UREA NITROGEN) BUN:
Urea is the major end product of protein metabolism in humans.
This test is used as an indicator of kidney function.
Increased values are observed in infections and diseases which reduce kidney function, liver diseases and diabetes.
C.REACTIVE PROTEIN (CRP)
CRP is synthesized in the liver and is one of the most sensitive acute phase reactants after tissue damage or inflammation. CRP levels in plasma can rise dramatically after myocardial infarction, trauma, infection, stress, inflammation, surgery or neoplastic proliferation. But an elevated CRP can be expected in virtually any disease involving tissue damage, hence the finding is non-specific.
CA-125 also known as mucin 16 or MUC16 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MUC16 gene. It acts as a cancer marker in human.
This cancer marker is use for detecting ovarian cancer. It is also used as a prognostic marker for ovarian malignancy. It is also elevated in other benign diseases as cirrhosis, hepatitis, endometriosis etc.
This is a cancer marker which is mainly use to follow treated breast cancer patients for recurrence or metastatic spread. It is also elevated in other cancers as pancreatic, lungs, ovarian.
This is a cancer marker for colorectal and pancreatic carcinoma. Elevated concentrations are found in patients with pancreatic, hepatobiliary, gastric hepatocellular, colorectal and breast cancer.
A blood calcium test is ordered to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a range of conditions relating to the bones, heart, nerves, kidneys, and teeth. The test may also be ordered if a person has symptoms of a parathyroid disorder, malabsorption, or an overactive thyroid.
Elevated calcium values are associated with hyperparathyroidism, multiple myeloma, neoplasias of bone and parathyroid, and conditions of rapid demineralization of bone. Lowered calcium levels are associated with hyperparathyroidism, tetany and occasionally with nephrosis and pancreatitis.
CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN (CEA):
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. CEA is normally produced in gastrointestinal tissue during fetal development, but the production stops before birth. CEA is usually present only at very low levels in the blood of healthy adults.
Increase level act as a cancer marker for colorectal, Lung, gastric, breast, pancreatic, ovarian and uterine carcinoma.
Anti-Cardiolipin Antibodies (ACA) are antibodies often directed against Cardiolipin and found in several diseases, including syphilisAntiphospholipid syndrome, livedoid vasculitis, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, Bechet’s syndrome, idiopathic spontaneous abortion and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). They are a form of anti-mitochondrial antibody.
Cardiolipin antibodies can be classified as IgM, IgG or IgA.
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF):
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spine. It is produced in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain. It acts as a cushion or buffer for the brain’s cortex.
CSF can be tested for the diagnosis of a variety of neurological diseases, usually obtained by a procedure called lumbar puncture.
CSF is extracted through the needle, and tested. Cells in the fluid are counted along with the levels of protein and glucose.
These parameters alone may be extremely beneficial in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage and central nervous system infections (such as meningitis) or malignant involvement of brain or spinal cord.
This test detects the presence of IGM antibodies to Chikungunya in the specimen. However, it should not be used as the sole criterion for diagnosis of Chikungunya and must be considered along with other clinical information. A negative result does not rule out the possibility of the infection.
Chloride is an electrolyte. It is a negatively charged ion that works with other electrolytes, such as potassium, sodium, and bicarbonate, to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base (pH) balance.
A chloride blood test is used to detect abnormal concentrations of chloride. It is often ordered, along with other electrolytes, as part of a regular physical to screen for a variety of conditions.
It is an important risk factor for development of heart disease. High cholesterol levels are directly proportional to increased risk.
Clotting time is the time required for a sample of blood to coagulatein vitro under standard conditions. This simple test has been used to diagnose hemophilia, but it does not detect mild coagulation disorders. Availability of newer more sensitive tests as PT, PTT have reduced its clinical use.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
High doses can result in very high blood pressure or body temperature.
Its use also increases the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, lung problems in those who smoke it, blood infections, and sudden cardiac death.
COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT (CBC)
Complete Blood count is a measure of the number and type of cells in the blood. This is used as a general screening test and helps diagnose diseases as anemia, infections, clotting disorders and blood cancers.
Its components are:
White blood cell count (Total & Differential)
Red Cell Count
Hematocrit / Packed Cell Volume
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)
Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH)
Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration(MCHC)
This test detects and identifies bacteria from a culture of fluid or discharge from an eye. This test is used to help diagnose a possible bacterial cause of conjunctivitis or “pink eye”.
Copper is an essential mineral but in excess, it can be toxic. Copper testing is primarily used to help diagnose Wilson disease, a rare inherited disorder that can lead to excess storage of copper in the liver, brain, and other organs. Less commonly, a copper test may be used to detect copper excess due to another condition, to detect a copper deficiency, or to monitor treatment for one of these conditions like anaemia, nausea, abdominal pain, Jaundice .
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
It is produced in the adrenal gland. It is released in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration. Serum Cortisol concentrations normally show a diurnal variation. Maximum concentrations are usually reached early in the morning and then concentrations decline throughout the day. It functions to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, to suppress the immune system, and to aid in the metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrates.
Serum Cortisol estimations are used for monitoring Cushing’s syndrome and Addison’s disease.
C-peptide is a product that is created when the hormone insulin is produced and released into the body. The insulin C-peptide test measures the amount of insulin in the blood.
Patients with diabetes may have their C-peptide levels measured as a means of distinguishing type 1 diabetes from type 2 diabetes or Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Measuring C-peptide can help to determine how much of their own natural insulin a person is producing as C-peptide is secreted in equimolar amounts to insulin.
CPK – MB (Fraction)
Increased levels of CK MP along with elevated levels of CPK are a good indicator of myocardial infarction. CKMB levels do not rise in chest pain caused by angina, pulmonary embolism and congestive heart failure.
CPK (Creatinine Phosphokinase)
The CPK isoenzymes test measures the different forms of Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK) in the blood. CPK is an enzyme found mainly in the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle.
Serum concentration of CPK is increased in skeletal muscle diseases, hypothyroidism and CNS diseases like cerebral ischemia and Reye’s syndrome.
Creatinine is a catabolic end product of creatine (or phosphocreatine). The amount produced each day is related to the muscle mass. Creatinine is freely filtered by the glomerulus.
Creatinine measurement is used almost exclusively in the assessment of kidney function(impaired renal perfusion, loss of functioning nephrons) and in the monitoring renal dialysis.
CYTOMEGALOVIRUS ANTIBODY (IGG)
CMV is a common virus that occurs widely throughout the population. However, primary CMV infection may cause serious illness and complications in people with weakened immune systems, such as transplant recipients, cancer patients, and people with HIV. IgG antibodies are produced by the body several weeks after the initial CMV infection and provide protection from primary infections.
CYTOMEGALOVIRUS ANTIBODY (IGM)
IgM antibodies are the first to be produced by the body in response to a CMV infection. They are present in most individuals within a week or two after the initial exposure. IgM antibody production rises for a short time period and then declines. After several months, the level of CMV IgM antibody usually falls below detectable levels. Additional IgM antibodies are produced when latent CMV is reactivated.