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Pathology studies reveal the causes and effects of diseases and relates to examining body tissue and bodily fluids for diagnostics. Considering the complexity of tests and methodologies, only labs with the best of equipment are able to detect diseases early and thereby enhance the chances of complete recovery. At Lotus Labs, our key focus is on preventive healthcare and we offer comprehensive medical testing services. Our well trained staff is best equipped to deal with dangerous strains in the lab and the strictest quality standards are adhered to.

We also offer expert support for patients who need regular management for their conditions such as diabetes and cardiac issues. Timely checks are always advised to ensure a disease-free and fulfilling life.

An absolute eosinophil count is a blood test that measures the number of white blood cells called eosinophils. Eosinophils become active when you have certain allergic diseases, infections, and other medical conditions. This test may help to diagnose acute hyper eosinophilic syndrome (a rare, but sometimes fatal leukemia-like condition),An allergic reaction (can also reveal how severe the reaction is),Early stages of Cushing’s disease, infection by a parasite.

The Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) or activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT or APTT) is done to detect abnormalities in blood clotting, intrinsic pathway including congenital deficiency of factor VIII, IX, XI and XII. It is used to measure anticoagulant therapy.
Partial Thromboplastin time is also used to monitor the treatment effects with heparin, a widely prescribed drug that reduces blood’s tendency to clot.

Adenosine deaminase (also known as adenosine amino hydrolase or ADA) is an enzymeinvolved in purine metabolism. It is needed for the breakdown of adenosine from food and for the turnover of nucleic acids in tissues.
ADA is considered one of the key enzymes of purine metabolism.
Primarily, ADA in humans is involved in the development and maintenance of the immune system.ADA is present in human blood plasma and is increased in many diseases, particularly those associated with the immune system: for example rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, tuberculosis and sarcoidosis.

The ACTH test measures the level of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the blood. ACTH is a hormone released from the pituitary gland in the brain.
The main function of ACTH is to regulate the steroid hormone Cortisol. Cortisol is released by the adrenal gland. It regulates blood pressure and blood sugar.
A high level of ACTH may indicate Addison disease, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, multiple endocrine neoplasias Type-I, Cushing disease
A low level of ACTH may indicate hypopituitarism, tumor of the adrenal gland.

AFB testing is used to detect several different types of acid-fast bacilli, but it is most commonly used to identify an active tuberculosis (TB) infection caused by the most medically important AFB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Mycobacteria are called acid-fast bacilli because they are rod-shaped bacteria (bacilli) that can be seen under the microscope following a staining procedure in which the bacteria retain the color of the stain after an acid wash (acid-fast).
This test is done if you have symptoms, such as chronic cough, weight loss, low grade fever, chills.

Albumin is a protein made by the liver that keeps fluid from leaking out of blood vessels, nourishes tissues, and transports hormones, vitamins, drugs, and substances like calcium throughout the body.
Albumin is the most abundant protein in human plasma.
Hyperalbuminemia is of little diagnostic significance except in dehydration.
Hypoalbuminemia is found as a result of several factors: reduced synthesis caused by liver diseases, reduced absorption of amino acids, malnutrition.

AFP is a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal development. It is thought to be the fetal form of serum albumin.
Plasma levels decrease rapidly after birth.
AFP is measured in pregnant women through the analysis of maternal blood or amniotic fluid, as a screening test for a subset of developmental abnormalities.
AFP is a marker hepatocellular and germ cell (nonseminomal) carcinoma.

Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme in the cells lining the biliary ducts of the liver. ALP is also present in bone and placental tissue.
ALP levels in plasma rise with large bile duct obstruction, intrahepatic cholestasis, or infiltrative diseases of the liver, bone disease associated with increased osteoblastic activity (Pager’s disease, primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone tumors, rickets, osteomalacia, bone fractures) and also in patient with hepatobiliary disease (obstructive jaundice, hepatitis)

Alanine Transaminase (ALT) is a Transaminase enzyme (EC2.6.1.2). It is also called AlanineAminotransferase (ALAT)
ALT is normally present in various tissues but its higher concentrations are found in liver and kidney.The serum concentration of ALT is elevated in hepatitis and other forms of hepatic disease associated with necrosis: infectious mononucleosis, cholestasis, cirrhosis, metastatic carcinoma of the liver, delirium tremens, and after administration of various drugs, such as opiates, salicylates or ampicillin.
Serum ALT concentration can also be elevated in skeletal or cardiac muscle disease.

The detection of Amphetamines in human urine has been widely used to assess the abuse of Amphetamines. Amphetamines are central nervous system stimulating drugs. They may induce alertness, wakefulness, increased energy, reduced hunger and overall feeling of well-being. Overdose and extended usage of Amphetamines may lead to substance abuse, which may cause severe and/or permanent damage to the human nerve system.

The blood amylase test is used to help diagnose and monitor acute pancreatitis and other pancreatic disorder like chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinoma and acute alcoholism and due to drugs (medicinal opiates, heroin addiction).

Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCAs) are a group of auto-antibodies, mainly of the IgG type, against antigens in the cytoplasm of Neutrophil granulocytes (the most common type of white blood cell) and monocytes. They are detected as a blood test in a number of autoimmune disorders like small vessel vasculitides including granulomatosis with polyangiitis (previously known as Wegener’s granulomatosis), microscopic polyangiitis, primary pauci-immune necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis .The presence or absence of ANCA cannot indicate presence or absence of disease and results are correlated with clinical features.

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme or ACE is a central component of the
Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), which controls blood pressure by regulating the volume of fluids in the body. It converts the hormone angiotensin I to the active vasoconstrictor angiotensin.
ACE is present in many different cell types such as neuronal cells and renal proximal tubular cells, but is mostly found in endothelial cells.
High levels of ACE are found in high blood pressure, heart failure and diabetic nephropathy.

Detection of IgM for hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) in serum is required to make the diagnosis of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) may be present in acute infection or in patients who are chronic carriers. Its presence in patients with symptoms of acute hepatitis strongly suggests acute HBV infection but does not rule out chronic HBV with acute superinfection by another hepatitis virus. The presence of HBsAg in the serum for 6 months or longer indicates chronic infection.

Anti-HBc total antibodies (all classes of antibodies) is the best marker for documenting prior exposure to HBV. Anti-HBc total antibodies become detectable before anti-HBs and remain positive indefinitely after IgM class anti-HBc disappears. In the absence of information about any other HBV markers, it must be considered that an individual with detectable levels of anti-HBc may be actively infected with HBV or that the infection may have resolved, leaving the person immune. Anti-HBc may be the only serological marker of HBV infection and potentially infectious blood. The presence of anti-HBc does not differentiate between acute or chronic hepatitis B infection. Anti-HBc should not be present in vaccinated individuals, unless they were infected with HBV prior to vaccination.

It is a hormone that inhibits the development of the Mullerian ducts (paramesonephric ducts) in the male embryo.
In women, to evaluate ovarian function and fertility, evaluation of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) or to evaluate the effectiveness of ovarian cancer treatment.
In an infant, to evaluate the presence of external sex organs that is not clearly male or female (ambiguous genitalia) and/or function of the testicles in an infant boy.

ASO antibodies are found in sera of patients in response to infection with hemolytic streptococci.
An abnormal or positive test result means you recently had a streptococcal infection.

This test is used to help diagnose a liver infection due to the hepatitis A virus (HAV).
Test for Hepatitis A is ordered when someone has acute symptoms such as Fever, Nausea, vomiting, Dark urine and/or pale colored stool , Jaundice

Presence of this antibody is considered evidence of immunity to hepatitis B.

Hepatitis C tests are used to screen for and diagnose a hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, to guide therapy and/or to monitor the treatment of an HCV infection.
This is the principal screening test for hepatitis C exposure.

Anti-cyclic Citrullinated peptide (ACCP) appears early in the rheumatic disease process and remains throughout the course of the disease. Early detection of Rheumatoid Arthritis is important as it causes irreversible damage to bone and cartilage.

The antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is used as a primary test to help evaluate a person for autoimmune disorders. The ANA are antibodies the body produces against its own DNA and nuclear material that cause tissue damage and characterize autoimmune diseases like systemic Lupus Erythematous, Sjogren’s syndrome, Scleroderma, CREST syndrome and mixed connective tissue disorders.
Serum levels are decreased in renal disease, obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypothyroidism.

Anti-thyroid antibodies are auto-antibodies targeted against one or more components on the thyroid. The most clinically relevant anti-thyroid auto-antibodies are anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO antibodies), thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbss) and thyroglobulin antibodies.
Anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies are specific for the auto-antigen TPO.
Anti-TPO antibodies are most commonly associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and activating TRAbs are most commonly associated with Graves’ disease.

Apolipoproteins are proteins that bind lipids (oil-soluble substances such as fat and cholesterol) to form lipoproteins. They transport the lipids through the lymphatic and circulatory systems.
There are two major types of apolipoproteins. Apolipoproteins B form low-density lipoprotein (“bad cholesterol”) particles. These proteins have mostly beta-sheet structure and associate with lipid droplets irreversibly. Most of the other apolipoproteins form high-density lipoprotein (“good cholesterol”) particles. These proteins consist of alpha-helices and associate with lipid droplets reversibly. During binding to the lipid particles these proteins change their three-dimensional structure. There are also intermediate-density lipoproteins formed by Apolipoprotein E.

Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity.
Ascites is a consequence or complication of a number of diseases, including
hepatic, cardiac, and renal diseases, infection, and malignancy.
Ascites is one of the most frequent complications of cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

AST, also called serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase or Aspartate Aminotransferase, enzyme associated with liver parenchymal cells.
AST is an enzyme found in high levels in the liver, heart, and muscles. It is also found in lesser amounts in other tissues.
An increased AST level is usually a sign of liver disease like hepatitis, cirrhosis and neoplastic disease.

Barbiturates are central nervous system depressants and used as hypnotic sedatives. Overdose and extended usage of barbiturates may lead to severe and/or permanent damage to the human nervous system.
Barbiturate derivatives are excreted in the urine.

Benzodiazepines are sedative, hypnotic and anti-anxiety drugs commonly used as tranquilizers. Most benzodiazepines excreted in the urine as metabolites. The benzodiazepines have a low potential for physical physiological dependence. Chronic abuse of benzodiazepines may result in intoxication, similar to drunken behavior. Overdose and extended usage of benzodiazepines may lead to coma.

This test is used for early detection of pregnancy. Serial elevations of Beta HCG are used for monitoring of pregnancy.
It is also used for detection and monitoring of HCG producing tumor cells of ovarian, placental or testicular origin. Depressed levels indicate missed abortion, ectopic pregnancy or IUD.

Bicarbonate is alkaline, and a vital component of the pHbuffering system of the human body (maintaining acid-base homeostasis).
This is especially important for protecting tissues of the central nervous system, where pH changes too far outside of the normal range in either direction could prove disastrous
Electrolyte panels or basic metabolic panels are commonly used to monitor treatment of certain problems (acidosis, alkalosis) including high blood pressure (hypertension), heart failure, and liver and kidney disease

BILIRUBIN (Total, Direct & Indirect)
Bilirubin is an orange-yellow pigment, a waste product primarily produced by the normal breakdown of heme.
A bilirubin test is used to detect an increased level in the blood. It may be used to help determine the cause of jaundice and/or help diagnose conditions such as liver disease, hemolytic anemia, and blockage of the bile ducts.
Increased total bilirubin that is mainly unconjugated (indirect) bilirubin may be a result of Hemolytic or pernicious anemia, Transfusion reaction, Cirrhosis
Conjugated (direct) bilirubin is elevated when there is blockage of the bile ducts. This may occur, for example, with Gallstones present in the bile ducts, Tumors & Scarring of the bile ducts

Bleeding time is a medical test done on someone to assess their platelets function. It involves making a patient bleed then timing how long it takes for them to stop bleeding.

A Blood culture is a test to find an infection in blood. The blood does not normally have any bacteria or fungi in it. A blood culture can show what bacteria or fungi are in the blood and which antibiotics will be able to kill the bacteria.

Blood grouping is done to identify the ABO antigen presence on red cells.
Rh classifies blood according to presence or absence of Rh (D) antigen.
Blood group and Rh factor testing is done to classify individuals into different blood groups like A,B,O,AB positive or negative prior to receiving or donating blood during surgery or otherwise.

Urea is the major end product of protein metabolism in humans.
This test is used as an indicator of kidney function.
Increased values are observed in infections and diseases which reduce kidney function, liver diseases and diabetes.

CRP is synthesized in the liver and is one of the most sensitive acute phase reactants after tissue damage or inflammation. CRP levels in plasma can rise dramatically after myocardial infarction, trauma, infection, stress, inflammation, surgery or neoplastic proliferation. But an elevated CRP can be expected in virtually any disease involving tissue damage, hence the finding is non-specific.

CA 125:
CA-125 also known as mucin 16 or MUC16 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MUC16 gene. It acts as a cancer marker in human.
This cancer marker is use for detecting ovarian cancer. It is also used as a prognostic marker for ovarian malignancy. It is also elevated in other benign diseases as cirrhosis, hepatitis, endometriosis etc.

CA 15-3:
This is a cancer marker which is mainly use to follow treated breast cancer patients for recurrence or metastatic spread. It is also elevated in other cancers as pancreatic, lungs, ovarian.

CA 19-9:
This is a cancer marker for colorectal and pancreatic carcinoma. Elevated concentrations are found in patients with pancreatic, hepatobiliary, gastric hepatocellular, colorectal and breast cancer.

A blood calcium test is ordered to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a range of conditions relating to the bones, heart, nerves, kidneys, and teeth. The test may also be ordered if a person has symptoms of a parathyroid disorder, malabsorption, or an overactive thyroid.
Elevated calcium values are associated with hyperparathyroidism, multiple myeloma, neoplasias of bone and parathyroid, and conditions of rapid demineralization of bone. Lowered calcium levels are associated with hyperparathyroidism, tetany and occasionally with nephrosis and pancreatitis.

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. CEA is normally produced in gastrointestinal tissue during fetal development, but the production stops before birth. CEA is usually present only at very low levels in the blood of healthy adults.
Increase level act as a cancer marker for colorectal, Lung, gastric, breast, pancreatic, ovarian and uterine carcinoma.

Anti-Cardiolipin Antibodies (ACA) are antibodies often directed against Cardiolipin and found in several diseases, including syphilisAntiphospholipid syndrome, livedoid vasculitis, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, Bechet’s syndrome, idiopathic spontaneous abortion and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). They are a form of anti-mitochondrial antibody.
Cardiolipin antibodies can be classified as IgM, IgG or IgA.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spine. It is produced in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain. It acts as a cushion or buffer for the brain’s cortex.
CSF can be tested for the diagnosis of a variety of neurological diseases, usually obtained by a procedure called lumbar puncture.
CSF is extracted through the needle, and tested. Cells in the fluid are counted along with the levels of protein and glucose.
These parameters alone may be extremely beneficial in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage and central nervous system infections (such as meningitis) or malignant involvement of brain or spinal cord.

This test detects the presence of IGM antibodies to Chikungunya in the specimen. However, it should not be used as the sole criterion for diagnosis of Chikungunya and must be considered along with other clinical information. A negative result does not rule out the possibility of the infection.


Chloride is an electrolyte. It is a negatively charged ion that works with other electrolytes, such as potassium, sodium, and bicarbonate, to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base (pH) balance.
A chloride blood test is used to detect abnormal concentrations of chloride. It is often ordered, along with other electrolytes, as part of a regular physical to screen for a variety of conditions.


It is an important risk factor for development of heart disease. High cholesterol levels are directly proportional to increased risk.

Clotting time is the time required for a sample of blood to coagulatein vitro under standard conditions. This simple test has been used to diagnose hemophilia, but it does not detect mild coagulation disorders. Availability of newer more sensitive tests as PT, PTT have reduced its clinical use.

Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
High doses can result in very high blood pressure or body temperature.
Its use also increases the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, lung problems in those who smoke it, blood infections, and sudden cardiac death.

Complete Blood count is a measure of the number and type of cells in the blood. This is used as a general screening test and helps diagnose diseases as anemia, infections, clotting disorders and blood cancers.
Its components are:
White blood cell count (Total & Differential)
Red Cell Count
Platelet Count
Hematocrit / Packed Cell Volume
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)
Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH)
Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration(MCHC)

This test detects and identifies bacteria from a culture of fluid or discharge from an eye. This test is used to help diagnose a possible bacterial cause of conjunctivitis or “pink eye”.

Copper is an essential mineral but in excess, it can be toxic. Copper testing is primarily used to help diagnose Wilson disease, a rare inherited disorder that can lead to excess storage of copper in the liver, brain, and other organs. Less commonly, a copper test may be used to detect copper excess due to another condition, to detect a copper deficiency, or to monitor treatment for one of these conditions like anaemia, nausea, abdominal pain, Jaundice .

Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
It is produced in the adrenal gland. It is released in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration. Serum Cortisol concentrations normally show a diurnal variation. Maximum concentrations are usually reached early in the morning and then concentrations decline throughout the day. It functions to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, to suppress the immune system, and to aid in the metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrates.
Serum Cortisol estimations are used for monitoring Cushing’s syndrome and Addison’s disease.

C-peptide is a product that is created when the hormone insulin is produced and released into the body. The insulin C-peptide test measures the amount of insulin in the blood.
Patients with diabetes may have their C-peptide levels measured as a means of distinguishing type 1 diabetes from type 2 diabetes or Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Measuring C-peptide can help to determine how much of their own natural insulin a person is producing as C-peptide is secreted in equimolar amounts to insulin.

CPK – MB (Fraction)
Increased levels of CK MP along with elevated levels of CPK are a good indicator of myocardial infarction. CKMB levels do not rise in chest pain caused by angina, pulmonary embolism and congestive heart failure.
CPK (Creatinine Phosphokinase)
The CPK isoenzymes test measures the different forms of Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK) in the blood. CPK is an enzyme found mainly in the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle.
Serum concentration of CPK is increased in skeletal muscle diseases, hypothyroidism and CNS diseases like cerebral ischemia and Reye’s syndrome.

Creatinine is a catabolic end product of creatine (or phosphocreatine). The amount produced each day is related to the muscle mass. Creatinine is freely filtered by the glomerulus.
Creatinine measurement is used almost exclusively in the assessment of kidney function(impaired renal perfusion, loss of functioning nephrons) and in the monitoring renal dialysis.

CMV is a common virus that occurs widely throughout the population. However, primary CMV infection may cause serious illness and complications in people with weakened immune systems, such as transplant recipients, cancer patients, and people with HIV. IgG antibodies are produced by the body several weeks after the initial CMV infection and provide protection from primary infections.

IgM antibodies are the first to be produced by the body in response to a CMV infection. They are present in most individuals within a week or two after the initial exposure. IgM antibody production rises for a short time period and then declines. After several months, the level of CMV IgM antibody usually falls below detectable levels. Additional IgM antibodies are produced when latent CMV is reactivated.


D-dimer (or D dimer) is a fibrin degradation product (or FDP), a small protein fragment present in the blood after a blood clot is degraded by fibrinolysis. It is so named because it contains two D fragments of the fibrin protein joined by a cross-link.
This test is done to diagnose Deep vein thrombosis (blood clot in deep veins), pulmonary embolism, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (a condition that prevents a person’s blood from clotting normally)


Dengue fever is a viral disease spread by the mosquito Aedes aezgypti.
Dengue fever ranges in severity from a mild flu-like illness to severe disease forms of the illness, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome.
Tests to diagnose dengue virus infections are:
Dengue Antibody IgM
Dengue Antibody IgG
Dengue Antigen NS1

DHEA-Sulphate (DHEAS):
DHEA-S is derived from enzymatic conversion of DHEA in adrenal and extra adrenal tissues. DHEA-S measurement is a useful marker of adrenal androgen synthesis. Abnormally low levels occur in hypoadrenalism and elevated levels are noted in visualizing adrenal adenoma and carcinoma and in some case of female hirsuitism. Women with polycystic ovarian disease tend to have mildly elevated levels of DHEA-S.

Double marker is a screening test to detect Down’s, Edward’s and Pateau’s syndrome in a fetus which are the commonest causes of mental retardation in a new born.
This test consists of 2 blood tests (PAPP-A and Free βHCG) and Nuchal Translucency measurement by ultrasound. This is usually done between 11 and 14 weeks of pregnancy.


A drug that is taken for non-medicinal reasons.Drug abuse can lead to physical and mental damage, dependence and addiction.

The common drugs of abuse are:
Buprenophrine/Norbuprenorphine (BUP/NBUP)


EGFR stands for estimated glomerular filtration rate. It is an estimation determined by blood testing for creatinine that is used to determine how well a patient’s kidneys are working. The estimated glomerular filtration rate test is used to measure how well the kidneys are working by performing a creatinine test and calculating a glomerular filtration rate.


Electrolytes are used for maintenance of cellular osmotic pressure and water distribution in the various body fluid compartments. (Blood, urine, pleural, peritoneal etc.) They also detect acid-base imbalance (acidosis or alkalosis) and aid evaluation of fluid status and extracellular cation-anion balance.
Major electrolytes are:

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR):

It is a non-specific test, which is used to monitor inflammatory or infective disease. The ESR is increased in inflammation, pregnancy, anemia, autoimmune disorders and some cancers (such as lymphoma and multiple myeloma). The ESR is decreased in polycythemia, sickle cell anemia, leukemia, low plasma protein and congestive heart failure. The basal ESR is slightly higher in females.


Estrogens are produced chiefly in the ovary, but small quantities are formed in the testes and adrenal cortex also and in the placenta during pregnancy. Estrogens are responsible for development of secondary sexual characteristics. Estradiol determination is useful in elucidation of fertility disorders in gynaecomastia, estrogen producing ovarian and testicular tumors and adrenal hyperplasia. It is also used in monitoring fertility treatment and determining time of ovulation in IVF.


Estriol, or oestriol, also known as 16α-hydroxyestradiol or estra-1,3,5-triene-3,16α,17β-triol, is one of the three main estrogens produced by the human body.
Estrogen tests are used to detect a deficiency or excess in a woman and to help diagnose a variety of conditions associated with this imbalance. They may also be used to help determine the timing of a woman’s ovulation and may be ordered to monitor the health status of the developing baby and placenta during pregnancy. In a man, estrogen testing may be performed to detect a hormone excess and its cause.


Ferritin is an iron storage protein and is predominantly utilized as iron marker of total body iron stores. The determination of Ferritin helps in establishing status of iron metabolism. It is a measure of the body’s iron reserves. A low Ferritin causes iron deficiency. Elevated Ferritin is encountered in tumors like acute leukemia, Hodgkin’s disease and carcinoma of liver prostate, lung and colon and poor outcomes following stem cell transplantation.


FSH belongs to the gonadotropin family and is released in pulses from anterior pituitary. FSH level shows a peak at mid cycle. High concentration of FSH occurs during menopause. In men it induces spermatogonium development. Determination of FSH is done in chromosomal aberrations, polycystic ovarian disease. Reduced levels in men are seen in azoospermia.
Assessment of FSH is useful in evaluation of hypogonadism, delayed puberty, infertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), amenorrhea, and
hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunctions


FT3 is the physiologically active form of T3 and its value is independent of alterations in concentration of binding proteins. It is to diagnose hyperthyroidism and monitor progress of patient with thyroid disorder, pregnancy.


FT4 is the physiologically active form of T4. It constitutes 0.03% of the total serum T4 concentration. 99.97% of the T4 in circulations is reversibly bound to carrier proteins. Hence estimation of FT4 has the advantage of being independent of alterations in concentration of binding protein.


Only 1-2% of circulating testosterone exists as unbound or free testosterone. Majority (60%) is bound to SHBG and remainder to albumin. Measurement of free or unbound fraction of serum testosterone has been proposed as a means of estimating physiologically bioactive hormone. Free testosterone is more useful than total testosterone in situations where SHBG is increased or decreased, example:Hypothyroidism, Obesity.


It is a test to identify which fungus is causing an infection. Skin, hair and nail are the common samples sent for fungal culture. Dermatophyte fungi and candida species are the common fungal pathogens in these specimens.


Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme testing is used to screen for and help diagnose G6PD deficiencies.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a condition in which red blood cells break down when the body is exposed to certain drugs or the stress of infection. It is hereditary which means it is passed down in families.


The Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT) blood test measures the level of the enzyme GGT in the blood.
GGT is an enzyme found in high level in the liver, kidney, pancreas, heart, and brain. It is also found in lesser amount in other tissues.
Gamma-Glutamyl activity is elevated in any and all forms of liver disease, showing highest values in cases of intra or post hepatic biliary obstruction.


Glucose is primary energy source for the human body.
Insulin, produced by islet cells in the pancreas, facilitates glucose entry in to the tissue cells. A deficiency of insulin or a decrease of its effectiveness increases blood glucose.
Elevated serum or plasma glucose levels are found in diabetes mellitus.
Measurement of plasma glucose level in fasting, postprandial and random states is used to diagnosis and monitoring of Diabetes Mellitus.


This is a screening test for gestational Diabetes Mellitus. A glucose load of either 50 or 75 grams may be used.


This test is used for diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and reactive hypoglycemia after administration of a fixed amount of glucose.



HbA1C levels are used to monitor glucose levels in diabetes as it is not subject to wide fluctuations as compared to plasma glucose levels. HbA1C is primarily used to know the previous 2 – 3 months’plasma glucose concentration. High levels of HbA1c is directly proportional to retinopathy and neuropathy in diabetes. This is also useful test in monitoring gestational diabetes.
Lower-than-expected levels of HbA1C can be seen in people with shortened red blood cell lifespan, as in sickle cell anemia.


Glycoproteins are proteins that contain covalently attached sugar residues.
This test is used to determine blood clot formation, cause of recurrent miscarriage.This test is also used in evaluation of Antiphospholipid Syndrome.
Beta-2 glycoprotein 1 antibody tests are used along with Cardiolipin antibody and lupus anticoagulant testing to help diagnose the cause of an unexplained blood clot (thrombotic episode) or recurrent miscarriages, to help diagnose Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), or to detect the auto antibodies in someone with another disorder. Glycoprotein antibodies can be classified in to IgM & IgG.


Gram staining is a method of staining used to differentiate bacterial species into two large groups (gram-positive and gram-negative). Gram stains yield results much more quickly than culturing, and is especially important when infection would make an important difference in the patient’s treatment and prognosis.


Helicobacter pylori, previously Campylobacter pylori, are a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium found usually in the stomach.
More than 50% of the world’s population harbor H. pylori in their upper gastrointestinal tract.
Individuals infected with H. pylori have increased lifetime risk of developing peptic ulcers.
This infection is also associated with gastric carcinoma and lymphoma.


This is a viral protein associated with persistent hepatitis B infection. Appearance of anti HBe is used as a marker for effective treatment.


Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is the most common chronic viral infection.
It is used to detect current HBV infection. It is present in both acute and chronic infection.  This is the first serological marker to appear 1 – 2 months after the infection and the last to disappear.


Hepatitis E is a virus that infects the liver. The virus is shed in the stools of infected persons, and enters the human body through the intestine. It is transmitted mainly through contaminated drinking water. Usually the infection is self-limiting and resolves within 2–6 weeks.Common symptoms are tiredness, Loss of weight, nausea and loss of appetite, pain on the right side of abdomen withjaundice, dark urine, and clay-colored stool.


High vaginal swab is a technique used in obstetrics and gynecology to obtain a sample of discharge from the vagina. This is then sent for culture and sensitivity, it is commonly used to test the presence of candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis and trichomonas vaginalis. Antimicrobials used to treat the infection are also reported.


HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, is the virus that causes AIDS. This disease suppresses the body’s ability to fight infections and weakens the immune system by killing vital T-cells.The human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, is transmitted through sex with an infected person, blood transfusions and sharing needles. This disease can easily be transmitted through blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, vaginal fluids, rectal fluids and breast milk. Symptoms of HIV include fever, sore throat, enlarged lymph nodes and rash.


Homocysteine is an amino acid released as the body digests dietary protein. High levels of Homocysteine are associated with greater risk of heart disease, stroke, congestive heart disease, diabetic neuropathy, bone fracture, dementias, alzheimers disease and preclampsia, neural tube defect in pregnant females.
Patients taking methotrexate, nicotinic acid, theophylline, nitrous oxide or L-dopa can have falsely elevated homocysteine levels.


Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a kind of antibody that has only been found in mammals.
IgE plays an important role in protection against parasitic infections and in allergy (Type 1 hypersensitivity). Increased IgE levels are seen in hay fever, atopic bronchitis, parasitic infection and dermatitis. Normal IgE values however do not rule out an allergic disease.


Ionized calcium is calcium in your blood that is not attached to proteins. It is also called free calcium. Ionized calcium levels give more information about active, ionized calcium. It may be important to know your ionized calcium levels if you have abnormal levels of proteins, such as albumin, or immunoglobins in your blood.


Serum iron is test done in case of suspected anemia, chronic fatigue and dizziness. One of the most important roles of iron is to provide haemoglobin (the protein in red blood cells). Iron is a part of heme, which is the active site of peroxidases that protect cells. Heme is also the active site of electron transport in cytochromes. Increase levels are seen in haemolytic anemia and hepatitis and decrease levels are seen in intestinal conditions that cause poor absorption of iron and not enough iron in the diet.


LDH is most often measured to check for tissue damage. LDH is an enzyme with wide tissue distribution in the body with higher concentration in liver, heart, kidney, skeletal muscle and erythrocytes. Increased levels of this enzyme are found in liver and renal disease, myocardial infarction, muscular dystrophy and anemia.


Leptospirosis is an infection caused by corkscrew-shapedbacteria called Leptospira. Signs and symptoms can range from none to mild such as High fever, chills, headache, Pulmonary hemorrhage and abdominal pain.If it’s not treated, it may not resolve for several months, and some patients may develop long-term complications such as kidney and lung problems.
It is transmitted mainly through contaminated drinking water. Usually the infection is self-limiting and resolves within 2–6 weeks.Common symptoms are tiredness, Loss of weight, nausea and loss of appetite, pain on the right side of abdomen withjaundice, dark urine, and clay-colored stool.


Lipase is a pancreatic enzyme and its determination is used for diagnosis of acute and chronic pancreatitis and obstruction of pancreatic duct.


Lipids are a group of fats and fat-like substances that are important constituents of cells and sources of energy.
The lipid profile is used as part of a cardiac risk assessment to help determine an individual’s risk of heart disease
Profile consists of the following:
HDL Cholesterol
LDL Cholesterol
VLDL Cholesterol &
Cholesterol ratios.

They are also involved in atherosclerosis which is the underlying cause of myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral vascular disease.


A liver panel, or one or more of its components, may be ordered for detecting, diagnosing, evaluating severity, monitoring therapy and assessing prognosis of liver disease and dysfunction
The profile includes the following tests:
Bilirubin – Total, Direct & Indirect
Alkaline Phosphatase
Gama GT
Total Protein
A/G Ratio


Lupus anticoagulants (LA) are antibodies against the anionic Phospholipid portion of Factor-X.
LA is also important cause of recurrent abortions in women. Since these antibodies are also found in the patients of SLE, detection of LA is important in management of patients with or without SLE experiencing unusual thrombic events and habitual abortions.
People with antibodies to phospholipids may have an overly high risk of forming blood clots. In spite of the name “anticoagulant” there is no increased risk of bleeding.


LH belongs to the gonadotropin family and is released in pulses from the anterior pituitary. LH level shows a peak at mid cycle. It initiates and maintains the secretory phase of the menstrual. Determination of LH is done in chromosomal aberrations, polycystic ovarian disease, and amenorrhea menopausal syndrome.
LH is used in the evaluation of infertility, ovarian reserve in women, sperm, monitor a women’s response to drugs for ovarian stimulation and PCOS.


Magnesium is needed for nearly all chemical processes in the body. It helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, and keeps the bones strong. Magnesium is also needed for the heart to function normally and to help regulate blood pressure. Magnesium also helps the body control blood sugar level and helps support the body’s defense (immune) system.


Malaria antigen detection test is a rapid diagnostic test to allow quick diagnosis of malaria.
Immunochromatographic tests are based on the capture of parasite antigen from peripheral blood using monoclonal antibodies


The Mantoux test (also known as the Mantoux screening test, tuberculin sensitivity test, Pirquet test, or PPD test for purified protein derivative) is a screening tool for tuberculosis (TB).
A false positive result may be caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria or previous administration of BCG vaccine.
A false negative result may occur in a person who has been recently infected with TB, but whose immune system hasn’t yet reacted to the bacteria.


Measles virus is highly contagious particularly infecting children, pregnant women,immunocompromised and nutritionally deficient individuals. IgG positivity indicates previous exposure to Rubeola virus or immunity. IgM positivity indicates recent infection, with Rubeola virus. Laboratory diagnosis of measles can be done with confirmation of positive measles IgM antibodies or isolation of measles virus RNA from respiratory specimens. Positive contact with other patients known to have measles adds strong epidemiological evidence to the diagnosis.


Urinary albumin concentration values provide a good indicatory of changes in glomerular permeability occur a number of renal diseases.

Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by an early hyperfiltration stage resulting in small increases in urinary albumin excretion.


When a specimen is sent to diagnostic laboratory for culture and sensitivity, the micro-organisms bacteria or fungi causing the infection are identified to kill the micro-organism are reported.


Morphine is an analgesic and narcotic drug obtained from opium and used medicinally to relieve pain.
It acts directly on the central nervous system (CNS) to decrease the feeling of pain.

Potentially serious side effects include a decreased respiratory effort and low blood pressure. Morphine has a high potential for addiction and abuse.
Common side effects include drowsiness, vomiting, and constipation.


Mumps is a viral infection that is transmitted through respiratory secretions or saliva. After a 2 to 3 weeks’ incubation period, an infected person typically develops flu-like symptoms followed by characteristic parotitis – swelling of the salivary (parotid) glands below one or both ears. For most people, mumps is a mild, self-limited illness, but some may develop complications.IgM may be detected for weeks to months; low levels of IgG may be present at symptom onset. When both IgM and IgG antibodies are present or there is a fourfold increase in concentrations between acute and convalescent IgG antibody tests, then it is likely that the person has a current or had a recent Mumps infection.
When Mumps IgG antibodies are present in a person who has been vaccinated and/or is not currently ill, then that person is protected against infection (immune).


A test for fecal occult blood looks for blood in your stool.
It can be a sign of a problem in your digestive system, such as a growth, or polyp, or cancer in the colon or rectum. It is also used in screening of gastrointestinal bleeding.


A Pap smear is a screening procedure for cervical cancer. It tests for the presence of precancerous or cancerous cells on the cervix, the opening of the uterus.
Cells are gently scraped from the cervix area and smears are examined microscopically.
You should have a Pap test every 3 years to check for cervical cancer.
When a Pap test shows abnormal changes, further testing or follow-up is needed.


Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that is important in bone remodeling.
Parathyroid hormone regulates serum calcium through its effects on bone, kidney, and the intestine.
Primary hyperparathyroidism is due to autonomous, abnormal hyper secretion of PTH from the parathyroid gland, while secondary hyperparathyroidism is an appropriately high PTH level seen as a physiological response to hypocalcaemia. A low level of PTH in the blood is known as hypoparathyroidism and is most commonly due to damage to or removal of parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery.


Phenytoin is used to control certain type of seizures, and to treat and prevent seizures that may begin during or after surgery to the brain or nervous system. Phenytoin is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants.
For the optimal level of phenytoin, a blood levels are done at regular intervals.


Phosphorus is a mineral the body needs to build strong bones and teeth. It is also important for nerve signaling and muscle contraction. Kidney, liver, and certain bone diseases can cause abnormal phosphorus levels.If the level of phosphorus in your blood is too high, you may have deposits of phosphorus in your muscles. This is rare and only occurs in people with severe calcium absorption or kidney problems. More commonly, excess phosphorus leads to cardiovascular disease or osteoporosis.


Pleural fluid is secreted by the parietal layer of the pleura and reabsorbed by the lymphatics in the most dependent parts of the parietal pleura, primarily the diaphragmatic and mediastinal regions. A pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates in the pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs.Pleural effusions occur when the pleura are damaged by trauma, infection or malignancy or when there is either excessive production of pleural fluid or the resorption capacity is exceeded.


The potassium is an electrolyte used to monitor renal function, acid-base balance and glucose metabolism and to evaluate clinical signs of potassium excess or depletion.
It is also used to evaluate neuromuscular and endocrine disorders and to detect the origin of arrhythmias.


Progesterone is mainly formed in the cells of corpus luteum and during pregnancy is the placenta. Its concentration correlates with the development and regression of corpus luteum.
The determination of progesterone is utilized in fertility diagnosis for the detection of ovulation and assessment of Luteal phase.


Prolactin is synthesized in the anterior pituitary. The target organ for Prolactin is the mammary gland. High concentration is the cause of fertility problems in men and women. The determination of Prolactin is utilized in diagnosis of anovular cycles, hyperprolactinemia, amenorrhea, galactorrhoea, gynaecomastia and azoospermia. Prolactin is used in follow up of low testosterone in men.


PSA is secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland.It is present in small quantities in the serum of men with healthy prostates, but is often elevated in the presence of prostate cancer or other prostate disorders likeprostatitis, irritation, benign prostatic hyperplasia.
In clinical practice, it is used as screening cancer marker for prostate


Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP or SPE) is a laboratory test that examines specific proteins in the blood.Electrophoresis is a laboratory technique in which the blood serum (the fluid portion of the blood after the blood has clotted) is applied to an acetate membrane soaked in a liquid buffer to a buffered agarose gel matrixgel, or into liquid in a capillary tube, and exposed to an electric current to separate the serum protein components.

The most common indications for a serum protein electrophoresis test are to diagnose or monitor multiple myeloma, a monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance.


The prothrombin time (PT) is used to help diagnose the cause of unexplained bleeding or inappropriate blood clots due to the extrinsic coagulation system (factors V, VII and X), prothrombin and fibrinogen. The international normalized ratio (INR) is a calculation based on results of a PT and is used to monitor individuals who are being treated with the blood-thinning medication (anticoagulant) warfarin.


In this test a wound swab or pus is sent for culture and sensitivity to the diagnostic laboratory. Bacteria or fungi from the infected wound are grown in laboratory on nutrient enriched substance called as ‘media’. Identification of the infecting microorganism is done and anti-microbials that can be used to treat the infection are reported.



Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells circulating in the human body.
The number of reticulocytes is a good indicator of bone marrow activity.
Reticulocytes are increased when there is increased production of red blood cells to overcome chronic or severe loss of mature red blood cells, such as in a haemolytic anemia.
Abnormally low numbers of reticulocytes can be attributed to chemotherapy, aplastic anemia, pernicious anemia, bone marrow malignancies, problems of erythropoietin production.


Rheumatoid factor (RF) is a blood test that measures the amount of the RF antibody in the blood.
RF is mainly present in the serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis but other diseases such as sub-acute bacterial endocarditis, malaria, tuberculosis and SLE may also produce RF.


Rubella is an infection caused by a virus.  In pregnant women It can cause miscarriage or birth defects. The IgG rubella antibody takes a bit longer to appear than the IgM, but once it does, it stays in the bloodstream for life, providing protection against re-infection. The presence of IgG antibodies may indicate a recent or past rubella infection, or indicate that a rubella vaccine (a measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine) has been given and is providing adequate protection.


The first type to appear in the blood after exposure is the IgM rubella antibody. The level of this protein rises and peaks in the blood within about 7 to 10 days after infection and then tapers off over the next few weeks, except in an infected newborn, in which it may be detected for several months to a year.


Chlamydia Trachomatis: PCR gives fast and accurate detection of Chlamydia infection, caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The bacteria cause pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility in women and urithritis, epididymitis and orchitis in men.

Neisseria Gonorrhoeae: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus causes sexually transmitted genitourinary infection as well as other forms of gonococcal disease including disseminated gonococcemia, septic arthritis, and gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum.

HIV: The human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (part of the family Retroviridae) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV can be divided into two major types, HIV type 1 (HIV-1) & HIV type 2 (HIV-2). HIV-1 is more common and the more pathogenic strain, causing the majority of HIV infections globally.

RT PCR for HPV Detection:

An HPV infection is caused by human papillomavirus, a DNA virus from the papillomavirus family HPV infects epithelial cells lining body cavities. Normally, HPV infections start in the deepest layers of the skin. Association of HPV is associated with more than 90% of cervical cancer and linked to oropharyngeal squamous carcinomas (OSCC) in males.

RT PCR for Hepatitis B DNA:

Polymerase chain reaction is a highly sensitive technique for the detection of hepatitis B virus-DNA in serum. Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver It can cause both acute and chronic infections. The virus is transmitted by exposure to infectious blood or body fluids. Infection around the time of birth or from contact with other people’s blood during childhood. These tests are used to assess a person’s infection status and to monitor treatment.

RT PCR for H1N1 (Swine flu):

H1N1 is a highly contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza A viruses. PCR detects swine influenza A virus (swinefA) nucleocapsid H1N1 swine influenza A virus. (swH1) hemagglutinin and human RNase Pgene. Test conducted as per WHO/CDC protocol for H1N1 detection.

RT PCR For Mycobacterium Tuberculosis:

PCR amplification is a sensitive and specific method for the rapid detection of M. tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis it typically affects the lungs but can affect other sites as well and if left untreated, is highly infectious which calls for a rapid and specific detection of the bacteria.

Semen Analysis, also called sperm count measures the number, quality and movement of spermin the semen sample.
It is done to evaluate male fertility, whether for those seeking pregnancy or verifying the success of vasectomy.
The morphology and count of spermatozoa deteriorates with unhealthy lifestyle like drugs, alcohol, tobacco, smoking and overweight apart from diseases like varicocele, infection, tumors and un-descended tests.
Folate is necessary for normal metabolism, DNA Synthesis and red cell regeneration. Folate deficiency results in megaloblastic anemia, foetal neural tube defects during pregnancy.
Folic acid supplementation in Vitamin B12 deficient people may precipitate or exacerbate irreversible neuropathy.
Estimation is used to diagnose cause of anemia,neuropathy, nutritional status in certain patients.
Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets.
It has important effects on the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells.
Serum Insulin determinations are mainly performed on patients with symptoms of hypoglycemia.
Low levels of insulin are associated with Diabetes. It is also measured in conditions like PCOS for insulin resistance.
Sodium ions are the major cation in the extracellular fluid (ECF) and as such are the major contributor to the ECF osmotic pressure.
In humans, sodium is an essential mineral that regulates blood volume, blood pressure, osmotic equilibrium and pH.
Unusually low or high sodium levels in humans are recognized in medicine as Hyponatremia and Hypernatremia. These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, ageing, or prolonged vomiting or diarrhea.
A sputum culture is test to detect and identify bacteria or fungi that infect the respiratory tract. A sample of sputum is added to a nutrient enriched substance called as ‘media’. Identification of infecting micro-organism is done and
anti-microbials that can be used to treat the infection are reported.
Sterile body fluids include pleural fluid, peritoneal fluids, synovial fluid etc.
A body fluid culture is a test to find an infection in blood. The blood does not normally have any bacteria or fungi in it. A bodyfluid can show what bacteria or fungi are in the blood and which antibiotics will be able to kill the bacteria.
A stool culture is the process of growing or culturing organisms in feces to see if any of them can cause a disease. Stool, normally also has many organisms in it. Hence pathogens like a salmonella, shigella etc. are looked for in adults. However, in children and elderly even E-coli may be a pathogen. If a pathogen is an isolated, antimicrobials that would treat it are also reported.
Stool examination is carried out in case of diarrhea, dysentery and parasitic infections.

Synovial fluid analysis examines the joint (synovial) fluid. The test is done to diagnose the cause of pain, redness, swelling in joints, bleeding in the joint after a joint injury, Gout and other types of arthritis, infection in a joint.

Testosterone is determined in men when reduced testosterone production is suspected example in hypogonadism, estrogen therapy, chromosomal aberrations and liver cirrhosis.
The determination of testosterone in women is helpful in the diagnosis of androgenic syndrome, ovarian and adrenal disturbances. It is used in evaluation of infertility, erectile dysfunction, low level of sexual interest, early or late puberty (in boys)
Anti-thyroglobulin antibody is a test to measure antibodies to a protein called thyroglobulin. This protein is found in thyroid cells.
Anti-thyroglobulin antibodies can be a sign of thyroid gland damage caused by the immune system. They may be measured if thyroiditis is suspected.
Anti-thyroglobulin is done to monitor post-treatment for thyroid cancer.
The thyroid hormones act on nearly every cell in the body.
The thyroid hormones are essential to proper development and differentiation of all cells of the human body. These hormones regulate body metabolism.
Physiological and pathological stimuli influence thyroid hormone synthesis.
Thyroid Function Tests are blood test which is used to measure how effectively the thyroid glands are working.
The profile includes:
Total Tri-iodo Thyronine (T3)
Thyroxin (T4)
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is to see the amount of iron that can be carried through blood by transferrin. Low level of TIBC is found in malnutrition and liver disease. High level of TIBC is found in Iron deficiency anemia and pregnancy.
Total protein measurements can reflect nutritional status and may be used to screen for and help diagnose kidney disease or liver disease.
It is usually performed in conjugation with other tests such as serum albumin, liver function tests or protein electrophoresis. An albumin/globulin ratio is often calculated to obtain additional information.
The Toxoplasma blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to a parasite called Toxoplasma gondii. This infection during pregnancy increases the risk for miscarriage or birth defects. IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma can be detected 2 – 3 weeks after exposure. Presence of IgG antibodies is suggestive of past infection.
IgM antibody is indicative of current infection. IgM antibody to Toxoplasma can be detected 2 – 3 weeks after exposure. In 50 % of the patients, IgM may be detectable upto one year following the primary infection. Therefore, a positive result should be elevated further with one or two follow up samples if primary infection is suspected.
TPHA is an indirect hemagglutination assay used for the detection and titration of antibodies against the causative agent of syphilis. TPHA is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Spirochetes, Treponema pallidum. This test detects anti-treponemal antibodies (IgG and IgM antibodies) in serum.

Transferrin is a plasmaproteinthat is essential in thetransport of ironfromtheintestineintothebloodstream,making it available to thenormoblasts in thebonemarrow. It alsomaytakepart in a slowerexchangewithferritin,hemosiderin,andotherironforms in thetissues.
Transferrin saturation is the ratio of serum iron and total iron-binding capacity. It is used to diagnose hemochromatosis. It is also used to distinguish iron deficiency anemia from anemia of chronic disease and to evaluate nutritional status.
Triglycerides are the major form of fat stored by the body. Elevated triglyceride levels are considered to be a risk factor for atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and coronary heart disease. Their levels fluctuate markedly with food and alcohol intake.
Troponin I test is an immunoassay for the rapid qualitative detection of cardiac Troponin I in human serum. It provides an aid in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction in emergency room, point-of-care and hospital setting.
This is a lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay for qualitative detection and differentiation of IgG and IgM antibodies to Salmonella typhi and paratyphi in human serum and plasma. IgG positive suggests late stage of infection, previous or latent infection.
This is a lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay for qualitative detection and differentiation if IgG and IgM antibodies to Salmonella typhi and paratyphi in human serum and plasma. IgM positive or IgM / IgG both positive suggest current infection. A negative result does not rule out the possibility of exposure to Salmonella typhi and paratyphi.

Uric acid is product of catabolism of purine bases. Elevated uric acid levels are commonly associated with gout, dehydration, decreased renal function and myeloproliferative disorders.

A urine culture is a test to find micro-organisms (Bacteria or fungus) in the urine that can cause infection. Urine in the bladder is normally sterile. This means it does not contain any bacteria or fungus. But bacteria can enter through urethra and cause a urinary tract infection (UTI). If UTI with significant count is found, antimicrobials used to treat the infection are reported.
This is qualitative immunochromatographic assay for the detection of cotinine in human urine. In general, the presence of nicotine or its metabolites in physiological fluids can be measured by analyzing the cotinine. a major metabolites of nicotine levels in the blood, saliva, or urine. It is reported that cotinine is stable in body fluid and has relatively long
Pregnancy test is a rapid qualitative immunoassay for the determination of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) marker for pregnancy in urine specimen.
The purpose of this test is to screen for renal or urinary tract disease and also to help to detect metabolic or systemic diseases unrelated to renal disorders.
Complete urine checkup is done when the patient is having symptoms frequent or painful urination, urinary tract infection, abdominal pain, blood in urine or during pre-surgical workup.

Varicella causes chicken pox and most cases reported are under the age of 15 years.
IgG antibodies are produced by the body several weeks after the initial VZV infection and provide long-term protection. Levels of IgG rise during the active infection then stabilize as the VZV infection resolves and the virus becomes inactive.
Serologic screening for IgG-class antibodies to VZV will aid in identifying non-immune individuals. The presence of IgM-class antibodies to VZV is suggestive of acute or recent infection however results should be correlated with clinical presentation.
The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL) is a blood test for syphilis. The VDRL test is used to screen for syphilis (it has high sensitivity), although in case of positive VDRL test we have to do specific tests such as the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test,
T. pallidum hemagglutination assays (TPHA) and the microhemagglutination assay.
Vitamin B12 is essential for normal metabolism, DNA synthesis and red blood cell regeneration. Untreated deficiency can lead to megaloblastic anemia and irreversible CNS degeneration.
Since deficiency or either Vitamin B12 or folate can cause megaloblastic anemia; it is advisable determine concentration of both Vitamin B12 and folate in order to properly diagnose the etiology of anemia.
Estimation is used to diagnose cause of anemia, neuropathy and nutritional status in certain patients.

Vitamin D refers to a group of fat-soluble Secosteroidsresponsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate, and zinc.
Vitamin D deficiency causes low bone mineral density and muscle weakness in elderly. Vitamin D deficiency is a common cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism. In children, severe deficiency leads to bone malformation; known as rickets.
Subclinical vitamin D deficiency contributes to the burden of chronic diseases, particularly osteomalacia, osteoporosis and decreased physical performance and possibly cancer, cardiovascular disease, Type-2 diabetes, infectious and autoimmune disorders.

Widal test is an agglutination test which detects the presence of serum agglutinins (H and O) in patient’s serum with typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Salmonella antibody starts appearing in serum at the end of first week and rise sharply during the 3rd week of endemic fever.

Zinc is an essential element which acts as a critical co-factor in various enzyme systems and is required for active wound healing. Zinc deficiency occurs due to lack of dietary absorption or loss after absorption. The only known effect of excessive zinc ingestion is interference with copper absorption leading to hypocupremia. Impaired immune function in people with zinc deficiency can lead to the development of respiratory, gastrointestinal, or other infections.


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